Proteome research, as a major pillar of functional genomics, is the frontier of life sciences today and has become a strategic vantage point in the field of biotechnology and the biomedical industry in the 21st century. As the direct product and a touchstone of the genome, proteome research could directly shed light upon the laws and nature of life activities, the pathogenesis of major human diseases (pathogens), and disease development. In this regard, it can promote the development of basic disciplines in life sciences as well as those in applied sciences such as analysis, information, and materials. That is to say, proteome research bears a strategic significance in improving China’s independent biomedical innovation capacity, the ability to prevent and treat major diseases and increase national health levels. In another sense, it may even play a major role in invigorating the development of national economic development by building up new drug research and development capabilities to facilitate the biomedicine-based pharmaceutical industries. All major countries in the world have invested heavily in establishing specialized, high-throughput proteomic R&D centers and initiated corresponding research programs and projects. Therefore, the research landscape is rapidly revolutionizing. In 2001, the international Human Proteome Organization was formally established, and followed that, one by one, the European and Asia-Pacific national and regional proteome organizations have become formed. China is among the major countries that embraced and carried out proteomics in its start period. Since 1997, related research topics have been initiated and successfully implemented under the funding of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the 973, and the 863 programs. Several proteomic research centers or key laboratories have been established in China. Since then, we have witnessed a steady development in proteomic bioinformatics research team building and the technical system. Promising progress has been made in structural proteomic research. The technical methods of protein interaction and related instrumentation have been successfully applied in many domestic research institutions. The results have been published in many international leading journals with recognition from the international academic community. Proteomics research remains one of the fundamental research areas in life sciences in China to keep pace with the main developed countries in the world.